Q: Is there independent scientific evidence that TNF as a therapeutic target after stroke, traumatic brain injury and other neuroinflammatory disorders make sense?

A: Yes, and the evidence is coming from multiple academic centers around the world. For example, there are multiple scientific articles from independent scientific researchers that support this treatment approach, including the following:

1. Johnson VE, Stewart JE, Begbie FD, Trojanowski JQ, Smith DH, Stewart W. Inflammation and white matter degeneration persist for years after a single traumatic brain injury. Brain : A Journal of Neurology. 2013;136(Pt 1):28-42.
2. Cheng X, Shen Y, Li R. Targeting TNF: a therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Drug Discov Today. 2014;19(11):1822-7.
3. Ignatowski TA, Spengler RN, Dhandapani KM, Folkersma H, Butterworth RF, Tobinick E. Perispinal etanercept for post-stroke neurological and cognitive dysfunction: scientific rationale and current evidence. CNS drugs. 2014;28(8):679-97.
4. Olmos G, Llado J. Tumor necrosis factor alpha: a link between neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity. Mediators of inflammation. 2014;2014:861231.
5. Siniscalchi A, Gallelli L, Malferrari G, Pirritano D, Serra R, Santangelo E, et al. Cerebral stroke injury: the role of cytokines and brain inflammation. Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology. 2014;25(2):131-7.
6. Tuttolomondo A, Pecoraro R, Pinto A. Studies of selective TNF inhibitors in the treatment of brain injury from stroke and trauma: a review of evidence to date. Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 2014;8:2221-39.
7. Clark IA, Vissel B. A Neurologist’s Guide to TNF Biology and to the Principles behind the Therapeutic Removal of Excess TNF in Disease. Neural plasticity. 2015;2015:358263.
8. Bergold PJ. Treatment of traumatic brain injury with anti-inflammatory drugs. Experimental neurology. 2016;275 Pt 3:367-80.
9. Hellewell S, Semple BD, Morganti-Kossmann MC. Therapies negating neuroinflammation after brain trauma. Brain Res. 2016;in press.
10. Siniscalchi A, Iannacchero R, Anticoli S, Pezzella FR, De Sarro G, Gallelli L. Anti-inflammatory Strategies in Stroke: a Potential Therapeutic Target. Current vascular pharmacology. 2016;14(1):98-105.

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